Lymphocytic choriomeninigitis virus (LCMV)

Characteristics

Morphology Member of the Arenaviridae family, enveloped virus, ssRNA.
Strain Specific Characteristics In mice, the Armstrong strain increases viral titers for 3-4 days then declines to clear completely. The clone 13 strain (derived from Armstrong), increases viral titers for months after infection and causes immunosuppression. It is thought that the clone 13 strain is more virulent and it has caused LAIs. The WE strain has been found to be lethal in non-human primates (NHP).
Growth Conditions Fibroblast or epithelial cell lines (37°C, 5% C02).

Health Hazards

Host Range House mice (Mus musculus) are natural hosts. LCMV can also infect humans other animals (hamsters, guinea pigs, NHPs, etc).
Modes of Transmission

LCMV is excreted through mice urine, saliva, and feces. Transmission occurs through inhalation, ingestion, and contact with mucous membranes and cuts or breaks in the skin. Vertical transmission is possible from mother to child. There is no other evidence of human to human transmission.

Signs and Symptoms

First phase: febrile illness (fever, lack of appetite, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, headache, and/or malaise).
Second phase: meningeal symptoms, encephalitic symptoms, and myelitis (swelling of the spinal cord).

Infectious Dose Unknown.
Incubation Period 8-13 days.

Medical Precautions/Treatment

Prophylaxis None available.
Vaccines None available.
Treatment None available.
Surveillance

Monitor for symptoms and test using serology and viral isolation.

Emory Requirements Report any exposures.
Additional Medical Precautions Women who are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant should be aware that pregnant women infected with LCMV can transmit the virus to their fetus. This can result in loss of pregnancy or serious birth defects.

Laboratory Hazards

Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) There have been well documented LAIs from infected animals and contaminated cell lines. 46 cases with 5 deaths have been documented.
Sources Urine, saliva, blood, tissues, CSF, nasopharynx secretions, and feces from infected humans, animals, and contaminated cell lines. 

Supplemental References

Canadian MSDS http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php 
BMBL: 5th Edition https://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/ 
CDC LCMV Guidelines https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/lcm/index.html 
Current Protocols in Microbiology Welsh, RM et Al. (2008). Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus UNIT 15A.1(LCMV): Propagation, Quantitation, and Storage. Current Protocols in Microbiology: 15A.1.1. http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471729259/cp/cpmc/article/mc15a01/current.pdf 

Containment

BSL-2 Manipulation of known or potentially infected clinical samples and cell cultures of laboratory adapted strains.
BSL-3 Manipulations involving high aerosol potential, high concentrations or volumes of virus, and strains lethal to NHP. 
ABSL-2 Work with adult mice infected with BSL-2 strains.
ABSL-3 Work with infected hamsters and work with adult mice infected with BSL-3 strains.

Spill Procedures

Small Notify others working in the lab. Allow aerosols to settle. Don appropriate PPE. Cover area of the spill with paper towels and apply an EPA registered disinfectant, working from the perimeter towards the center. Allow 30 minutes of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials.
Large

Contact Emory’s Biosafety Officer (404-727-8863),
the EHSO Office (404-727-5922), or
The Spill Response Team (404-727-2888).

Exposure Procedures

Mucous membrane Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 15 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures Wash area with soap and water for 15 minutes.
Reporting Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft.
Medical Followup 

7am-4pm (OIM): EUH (404-686-7941) EUHM (404-686-7106) WW (404-728-6431)

After Hours: OIM NP On Call 404-686-5500 PIC# 50464

Needle Stick (OIM): EUH (404-686-8587) EUHM (404-686-2352)

Yerkes: Maureen Thompson Office (404-727-8012) Cell (404-275-0963)

Viability

Disinfection Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 70% ethanol, and formaldehyde.
Inactivation Inactivated by heat.
Survival Outside Host 90-Capable of surviving outside of the host (mouse droppings)% reduction in several hours.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, personnel are required to don gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with Lentivirus. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions

Due to the modes of transmission, respirators may be required when working with LCMV. Fit testing and training is required annually per Emory’s Respiratory Program

PDF (Full Document)

BARS PDF
Click the icon to download the PDF version of this BARS.