Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Characteristics

Morphology Member of the Parmxyoviridea family, 150-300 nm in diameter, enveloped, -ssRNA virus.
Growth Conditions Human epithelial cell lines (HEp-2). 

Health Hazards

Host Range Humans

Modes of Transmission

Directly by respiratory secretions, inhalation of large droplets, fomites, and oral contact. Indirectly by hands, articles soiled by respiratory or nasal secretions

Signs and Symptoms

Runny nose, loss of appetite, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and fever.

Infectious Dose >100-640 infectious organisms (when administered intranasally).
Incubation Period Incubation period is 2-8 day, however shedding may continue for several weeks.

Medical Precautions/Treatment

Prophylaxis Human immunoglobulin and monoclonal antibodies.
Vaccines None Available
Treatment Aerosolized or oral ribavirin and immunoglobulin/ monoclonal antibodies to high risk groups. These groups include premature infants, immunocompromised individuals and children with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

Surveillance

Monitor symptoms.

Emory Requirements Report all exposures

Laboratory Hazards

Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) Only one reported case in 1978. However, it is likely that many LAIs occur but have not been reported due to the difficulty to link it back to the laboratory cause
Sources Nasal washes and secretions, nasopharyngeal swabs.

Supplemental References

Canadian MSDS http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php 
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses http://www.ictvdb.org/ 
CDC Guidelines https://www.cdc.gov/rsv/index.html 
Journal of Virology Wright, PF et Al. (2005). Growth of respiratory syncytial virus in primary epithelial cells from the human respiratory tract. J. Virol. 79: 8651-8654.

Containment

BSL-2 For all procedures involving infectious body tissue, fluid, or viral cultures.
ABSL-2 For all procedures involving animals infected with RSV.

Spill Procedures

Small Notify others working in the lab. Allow aerosols to settle. Don appropriate PPE. Cover area of the spill with paper towels and apply an appropriate disinfectant, working from the perimeter towards the center. Allow 30 minutes of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials.
Large

Contact Emory’s Biosafety Officer (404-727-8863),
the EHSO Office (404-727-5922), or
The Spill Response Team (404-727-2888).

Exposure Procedures

Mucous membrane Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 15 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures Wash area with soap and water for 15 minutes. Ethanol rubs may be used for splashes and intact skin.
Reporting Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft.
Medical Followup 

7am-4pm (OIM): EUH (404-686-7941) EUHM (404-686-7106) WW (404-728-6431)

After Hours: OIM NP On Call 404-686-5500 PIC# 50464

Needle Stick (OIM): EUH (404-686-8587) EUHM (404-686-2352)

Yerkes: Maureen Thompson Office (404-727-8012) Cell (404-275-0963)

Viability

Disinfection

Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% gluteraldehyde, and detergents.

Inactivation Inactivated by freeze/thaw cycles, acidic conditions (pH<5), and heat (>55°C)
Survival Outside Host Contaminated nasal secretions are viable on towels, cloths, rubber gloves, and other surfaces for up to 8 hours.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, personnel are required to don gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with RSV. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.

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