Salmonella Typhimurium

Characteristics

Morphology Family Enterobacteriaceae; S. typhimurium is a gram negative rod; motile, aerobic and anaerobic. This bacteria is one of the non-typhoid strains of salmonella common in the US.
Growth Conditions LB broth/agar (37°C); Aerobic.

Health Hazards

Host Range
Humans, patients with acute illness and chronic carriers, flies possibly as a vector.

Modes of Transmission

Skin exposure; mucous membrane splash; ingestion.

Signs and Symptoms

Acute infectious disease with sudden onset of abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

Infectious Dose Unknown.
Incubation Period Usually 6 to 72 hours for gastroenteritis and 5-21 days for enteric fever.

Medical Precautions/Treatment

Prophylaxis None available.
Vaccines None available for non-typhoid Salmonella species.
Treatment Antibiotic treatment is specific to symptomatology.
Surveillance

Monitor for symptoms; bacteriological examination of blood, excreta.

Emory Requirements Report all incidents. Contact the Biosafety Officer to discuss the need for a CDC and/or USDA permit.

Laboratory Hazards

Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) Laboratory infections have been reported with Salmonella spp.
Sources

Contaminated food, blood, abscesses, lesion exudates, CSF, feces, and urine.

Supplemental References

Containment

BSL-2

All work with Salmonella-infected samples or propagation of the bacteria must be conducted inside a Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) Class II. Use face shield, surgical mask and eye protection for open bench work.

Hand washing procedures must be carefully followed.

Animal work should be conducted in the BSC. 

Risk assessment will be needed for procedures generating aerosols.

Spill Procedures

Small Notify others working in the lab. Allow aerosols to settle. Don appropriate PPE. Cover area of the spill with paper towels and apply an EPA-registered disinfectant, working from the perimeter towards the center. Allow 30 minutes of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials.
Large

For assistance, contact Emory’s Biosafety Officer (404-727-8863), or the EHSO Spill Team (404-727-2888).

Exposure Procedures

Mucous Membrane Exposure should be irrigated vigorously.
Skin Exposure (Needlestick or Scratch)
Immediately go to the sink and thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water for 15 minutes. Decontaminate any exposed skin surfaces with an antiseptic scrub solution.
Splash Affecting Garments

Remove garments that may have become soiled or contaminated and place them in a double red plastic bag.

Reporting Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft.
Medical Followup 

7am-4pm (OIM): EUH (404-686-7941) EUHM (404-686-7106) WW (404-728-6431)

After Hours: OIM NP On Call (404-686-5500) PIC# 50464

Needle Stick (OIM): EUH (404-686-8587) EUHM (404-686-2352)

Yerkes: Maureen Thompson Office (404-727-8012) Cell (404-275-0963)

Viability

Disinfection

1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol.

Inactivation Sensitive to heat, UV light, Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Survival Outside Host Survival ranges from hours to months.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, personnel are required to don gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with ­­­­­­­ Salmonella typhimurium.   Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted after consultation with the Biosafety Officer. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities.

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