Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Characteristics

Morphology Aerotolerant (oxygen-tolerant), anaerobic, Gram positive diplococci, lancet-shaped, occur in pairs, or short, tight chains
Growth Conditions

Can be placed in various growth media and incubated at 37°C. Ex: TSA supplemented with 5% sheep’s blood

Health Hazards

Host Range

Humans, mice, rats guinea pigs, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, mammals that live in association with humans

Modes of Transmission

Direct contact with aerosol droplets. Direct oral and mucous membrane contact. Indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.

Signs and Symptoms

Shaking chills, chest pain, dyspnea, fever, productive cough, and sinusitis; Can cause middle ear infections. Can progress to pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis

Infectious Dose Unknown for humans
Incubation Period Generally 1-3 days

Medical Precautions/Treatment

Prophylaxis Penicillin
Vaccines Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Vaccination is recommended for all children under 5 years of age, all adults over 65 years of age, and high risk individuals of any age, including individuals with underlying medical conditions such as HIV or sicklecell disease.
Treatment

Variable susceptibility to: penicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, telithromycin, vancomycin, linezolid

Surveillance

Monitor for symptoms of infection

Emory Requirements Report all exposures

Laboratory Hazards

Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) 78 documented cases since 1999.
Sources Sputum, blood, respiratory secretions, throat swabs, parenteral inoculation

Supplemental References

Containment

BSL-2 For all activities involving known or potentially infected cultures
ABSL-2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals

Spill Procedures

Small Notify others working in the lab. Allow aerosols to settle. Don appropriate PPE. Cover area of the spill with paper towels and apply an EPA registered disinfectant, working from the perimeter towards the center. Allow 30 minutes of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials.
Large

Contact Emory’s Biosafety Officer (404-727-8863),
the EHSO Office (404-727-5922), or
The Spill Response Team (404-727-2888).

Exposure Procedures

Mucous membrane Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 15 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures Wash area with soap and water for 15 minutes.
Reporting Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft.
Medical Followup 

7am-4pm (OIM): EUH (404-686-7941) EUHM (404-686-7106) WW (404-728-6431)

After Hours: OIM NP On Call 404-686-5500 PIC# 50464

Needle Stick (OIM): EUH (404-686-8587) EUHM (404-686-2352)

Yerkes: Maureen Thompson Office (404-727-8012) Cell (404-275-0963)

Viability

Disinfection

1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde,

Inactivation

Sensitive to moist and dry heat.

Moist Heat (121°C for at least 15 mins).

Dry Heat (160-170°C for at least 1 hour).

Survival Outside Host Mouse carcass – 180 to 270 days; Sputum (Room Temp) - 7 days; Gauze – 2 to 15 days

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, personnel are required to don gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with S. pneumoniae. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC).

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